Graphene materials have entered a phase of maturity in their development that is characterized by their explorative utilization in various types of applications and fi elds from electronics to biomedicine. Herein, we describe the recent advances made with graphene-related materials in the biomedical fi eld and the challenges facing these exciting new tools both in terms of biological activity and toxicological profi ling in vitro and in vivo.
Graphene has unique mechanical, electronic, and optical properties, which researchers have used to develop novel electronic materials including transparent conductors and ultrafast transistors. Recently, the understanding of various chemical properties of graphene has facilitated its application in high-performance devices that generate and store energy. Graphene is now expanding its territory beyond electronic and chemical applications toward biomedical areas such as precise biosensing through graphene-quenched fluorescence, graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth, and graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization for mass spectrometry.
A simple method that uses graphene to fabricate nanotopographic substrata was reported for stem cell engineering. Graphene-incorporated chitosan substrata promoted adhesion and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In addition, we proposed that nanotopographic cues of the substrata could enhance cell?cell and cell?material interactions for promoting functions of hMSCs.
Donor?acceptor-blended bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells fabricated by low-cost printing technology offer a number of advantages: They are robust, lightweight, and flexible and can be produced in large area by roll-to-roll manufacturing.[1?4] During recent years, there have been significant improvements in power conversion efficiency (PCE) in BHJ solar cells because of the synthesis of specific polymers and small molecules, the achievement of improved nanomorphology through process control (by processing additives), and the use of new architectures (e.g., the inverted structure with specific transport layers).
Even weak van der Waals (vdW) adhesion between two-dimensional solids may perturb their various materials properties owing to their low dimensionality. Although the electronic structure of graphene has been predicted to be modified by the vdW interaction with other materials, its optical characterization has not been successful. In this report, we demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to detect a few percent decrease in the Fermi velocity (vF) of graphene caused by the vdW interaction with underlying hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). Our study also establishes Raman spectroscopic analysis which enables separation of the effects by the vdW interaction from those by mechanical strain or extra charge carriers.
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